Since 2010 Joseph Jakes has been a Research Materials Engineer in the Forest Biopolymer Science and Engineering group at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, WI. He received a BS in Chemical and Biological Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2005. Also in 2005 he was accepted into a USDA Forest Service student trainee position and began conducting nanoindentation research at the Forest Products Laboratory that led to the completion of his PhD in Materials Science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2010. His current research interests include developing advanced material characterization techniques to probe structures and properties at micrometer length scales and below, and applying the techniques to develop structure-property-processing-performance relationships in wood cell walls. Understanding the effects of adhesive infiltration on wood cell walls has been of particular interest. Joseph has authored over 45 refereed papers and his work has been recognized through numerous invited talks, an invitation to spend two years as a visiting scientist at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (2013-2015), and numerous awards including the 2008 Forest Products Society Wood Award, 2012 Presidential Award for Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), and 2017 Forest Products Society Wood Engineering Achievement Award: Young Engineer.
Abstract – Using Advanced Experimental Tools to Accelerate Wood Adhesive Development
The development of new and improved wood adhesives remains a costly empirical process, and will remain so until a more complete mechanistic understanding of the performance of wood–adhesive bondlines is achieved. It is well-known that adhesive penetration into wood is generally needed for adequate bondline performance, especially when the end use includes fluctuations in moisture conditions and the bondline must be capable of withstanding dimensional changes caused by water sorption. However, the specific interactions between the adhesive and wood, especially within a wood cell wall, that lead to superior bonds remain elusive. New approaches and tools are needed. We have recently employed materials science approaches and a wide array of advanced characterization techniques, including X-ray fluorescence microscopy, X-ray computed tomography, small angle neutron scattering, and nanoindentation experiments, to improve the mechanistic understanding of how to create superior wood-adhesive bondlines. In the materials science approach, structure-property- processing-performance relationships are identified and studied. This approach has led to a refined understanding what how and why adhesive components diffuse into wood cell walls. In particular, because wood cell walls are solid polymeric materials, the diffusion of larger chemicals likely only occurs when wood polymers have passed through their glass transition and are in a rubbery state. Additionally, experimental studies of model bondline systems made using loblolly pine and phenol formaldehyde adhesives have led to the new insight that adhesive infiltration into cellulose microfibrils at the nm-length scales likely plays an important role in creating moisture durable wood-adhesive bondlines. Future research directions to further improve our understanding of wood–adhesive bondlines will also be discussed.